## Wednesday, 26 March 2014

### An Artificial Intelligence for the 2048 game

Lately the 2048 game reached a good notoriety on the internet.

A discussion about possible algorithms which solve the 2048 game arose on StackOverflow.

The main discussed algorithms are:

The solution I propose is very simple and easy to implement. Although, it has reached the score of 131040. Several benchmarks of the algorithm performances are presented.

### Algorithm

#### Heuristic scoring algorithm

The assumption on which my algorithm is based is rather simple: if you want to achieve higher score, the board must be kept as tidy as possible. In particular, the optimal setup is given by a linear and monotonic decreasing order of the tile values.

This intuition will give you also the upper bound for a tile value: $2^{n} \rightarrow 2^{16} = 65536$ where $n$ is the number of tile on the board. (There's a possibility to reach the 131072 tile if the 4-tile is randomly generated instead of the 2-tile when needed)

Two possible ways of organizing the board are shown in the following images

To enforce the ordination of the tiles in a monotonic decreasing order, the score si computed as the sum of the linearized values on the board multiplied by the values of a geometric sequence with common ratio $r<1$ .

$p_n \in Path_{0 \cdots N-1}$

$score = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} value(p_n) * r^n$

Several linear path could be evaluated at once, the final score will be the maximum score of any path.

#### Decision rule

The decision rule implemented is not quite smart, the code in Python is presented here:

An implementation of the minmax or the Expectiminimax will surely improve the algorithm. Obviously a more
sophisticated decision rule will slow down the algorithm and it will require some time to be implemented.I will try a minimax implementation in the near future. (stay tuned)

### Benchmark

• T1 - 121 tests - 8 different paths - $r = 0.125$
• T2 - 122 tests - 8-different paths - $r = 0.25$
• T3 - 132 tests - 8-different paths - $r = 0.5$
• T4 - 211 tests - 2-different paths - $r = 0.125$
• T5 - 274 tests - 2-different paths - $r = 0.25$
• T6 - 211 tests - 2-different paths - $r = 0.5$

In case of T2, four tests in ten generate the 4096 tile with an average score of $\sim 42000$

### Code

The code can be found on GiHub at the following link: https://github.com/Nicola17/term2048-AI
It is based on term2048 and it's written in Python. I will implement a more efficient version in C++ as soon as possible.

### StackOverflow

You can upvote my answer on StackOverflow here :)

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